Asian Journal of Dental and Health Sciences http://ajdhs.com/index.php/journal <p>Asian Journal of Dental and Health Sciences is a <em>double-blind peer-reviewed</em> <em>International </em>Journal dedicated to the publication of research papers, reviews, mini-reviews, Short communications and case studies. This publication is aimed at a broad, interdisciplinary audience of academic and industrial researchers actively engaged in basic and applied laboratory practice, related to dental &amp; health &amp; medical sciences.</p> en-US editor@ajdhs.com (Editor in Chief) editor@ajdhs.com (Journal Manager) Thu, 15 Dec 2022 11:02:59 +0000 OJS 3.3.0.10 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Significant Caries (SiC) Index and Distribution of Regional Origins for Members of Formed Police Unit (FPU) XI http://ajdhs.com/index.php/journal/article/view/31 <p>Indonesia's geographical conditions are very diverse. Oral disease which is the most common global health problem is caries. An indicator of caries experience which includes decay, missing, filled criteria is DMF, the easiest and most frequently used method for epidemiological surveys of dental caries. To identify the subset of the population with high and very high DMF-T scores and to find individuals who are still susceptible to caries, the Significant Caries (SiC) index is used as a complement to the average DMF-T value. This study aims to determine the description of the Significant Caries (SiC) index and the distribution of regional origins of members of the Formed Police Unit (FPU) in LKOK Pusdokkes Polri Jakarta by the year 2020. This research is descriptive study with a total sampling method of selecting samples. A The DMF-T score was 1157 with a mean DMF-T of 6.4 (high criteria), and SiC index of 11.4 (very high criteria). Respondents from the Western Region of Indonesia had a DMF-T score of 465 and SiC index of 11.34 (very high criteria). The DMF-T score for respondents from Central Region of Indonesia was 155 and SiC index 11.9 (very high criteria). Respondents from Eastern Region of Indonesia had DMF-T score of 76 and SiC index 10.85 with (very high criteria). It can be concluded that respondents have DMF-T scores in the high criteria and SiC index with very high criteria. Based on the regions of origin of the respondents, SiC score index in all three regions are of origin is included in the very high criteria with respondents from the Central Region of Indonesia having the highest SiC index compared to the other 2 regions.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Significant Caries (SiC) Index, Regions of Origin of FPU XI Member</p> Ita Yulita, Tedi Purnama, Nurul Hidayah Copyright (c) 2022 Ita Yulita, Tedi Purnama, Nurul Hidayah https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ajdhs.com/index.php/journal/article/view/31 Thu, 15 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Effervescent Tablets: Everything You Need To Know http://ajdhs.com/index.php/journal/article/view/18 <h1>Oral dosage forms are the most popular way of taking medication, despite having some disadvantages compared with other methods like risk of slow absorption of the medicament, which can be overcome by administering the drug in liquid form, therefore, possibly allowing the use of a lower dosage. However, instability of many drugs in liquid dosage form limits its use. Effervescent technique can be used as alternate to develop a dosage form which can accelerate drug disintegration and dissolution, is usually applied in quick release preparations. Along with the development of new pharmaceutical technique, effervescent tablets are more and more extensively to adjust the behavior of drug release, such as in sustained and controlled release preparations, pulsatile drug delivery systems, and so on. In this review we have discussed about formulation, evaluation, advantages of effervescent tablets and also demonstrated the new applying of effervescent technique in effervescent tablets.</h1> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Effervescent tablets. Carbon tablet, Effervescent granules.</p> Vineeta Devi Lodhi, Arvind Singh Jadon, Jyoti Sen, Prateek Kumar Jain, Bhupendra Singh Thakur, Basant Khare, Anushree Jain Copyright (c) 2022 Vineeta Devi Lodhi, Arvind Singh Jadon, Jyoti Sen, Prateek Kumar Jain, Bhupendra Singh Thakur, Basant Khare, Anushree Jain https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ajdhs.com/index.php/journal/article/view/18 Thu, 15 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 A Review on Herbal Cosmetics and Cosmeceuticals http://ajdhs.com/index.php/journal/article/view/19 <p>Human beings have been using herbs for different purpose like food, medicine, beautifying. The word cosmetic was derived from the Greek word “kosm tikos” meaning having the power, arrange, skill in decorating. The natural herbs and their products when used for their aromatic value in cosmetic preparation are termed as herbal cosmetics. The increased demand for the natural product has created new avenues in cosmeceuticals market. The herbal Cosmetics have been the first choice of the customers, for being more potent, easily available and thought to be less side effective. Herbal cosmetics are Fastest growing field of personal care products. Cosmeceuticals is the fastest growing segment of the personal care products these are cosmetic preparations which contain biologically active principles or ingredients of plant origin. In recent years there is an increased demand for the use of herbs in cosmetics due to their mild action and less toxic in nature and they are found to be more effective. The desire of good looking and to be beautiful gave a huge market for the herbal cosmetics. Now a days desire to be look younger than original age, to be look beautiful, fresh, charming and fair have directly increased the demand of herbal cosmetics as well as of the Cosmeceuticals in the market. Hence the review overlooks on the use of herbal cosmetics and cosmeceuticals. It also describes about herbs as cosmetics. Numerous herbal plants are available naturally; they having different chemical constituents used in cosmetics preparations. This review is based on focusing on the cosmeceuticals intended to enhance the health and beauty of skin.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Herbal cosmetics, cosmeceuticals, herbs, skin care, skin cosmetics, tooth cosmetics, hair cosmetics.</p> Sameeksha Jain, Mahima Trivedi, Manoj Raikwar, Maniram Lodhi, Meer Yousuf Ali, Arpana Purohit, Prakhar Nema Copyright (c) 2022 Sameeksha Jain, Mahima Trivedi, Manoj Raikwar, Maniram Lodhi, Meer Yousuf Ali, Arpana Purohit, Prakhar Nema https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ajdhs.com/index.php/journal/article/view/19 Thu, 15 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 A Comprehensive Review on Antioxidant-Rich Natural Fruit and Vegetable Products and Human Health http://ajdhs.com/index.php/journal/article/view/20 <p>Antioxidants are important ingredients that are present in fruits and vegetables (FAV). With increased consumption of FAV in its raw and processed form, a predominantly plant-based diet rich in FAV could reduce the risk of the development of chronic human diseases. This review highlights the potentials of the various types of antioxidants containing FAV; their impact on human health as nutraceuticals, pharmaceuticals, and phytoceuticals; as well as prospects in tackling some chronic human diseases. The structures and activity relationship of the antioxidant compounds, as well as their mechanism of action, are examined from current scientific investigations. Information provided herein will give more insight into the roles of antioxidant ingredients present in FAV.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong> - Fruits; vegetables; phytochemicals; antioxidants; human health; diets </p> Prakhar Nema, Ankit Namdev, Amit Dangi, Amit Lodhi, Anjali Rohit, Harshna Vishwakarma Copyright (c) 2022 Prakhar Nema, Ankit Namdev, Amit Dangi, Amit Lodhi, Anjali Rohit, Harshna Vishwakarma https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ajdhs.com/index.php/journal/article/view/20 Thu, 15 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Immunostimulants: Concepts, Types and Functions http://ajdhs.com/index.php/journal/article/view/22 <p>The proper functioning of human immune system is essential for organism survival against infectious, toxic and oncogenic agents. The concept of immunomodulation was proposed by Edward Jenner, while working on polio vaccine in 1796. A brawny, fine-functioning immune system is the keystone of excellent health. Immune replies are the consequence of an effectual interaction among innate (natural and non-specific) and acquired (adaptive and specific) components of the immune system. Inequity or failure of the immune systems is connected with a variety of chronic illness counting allergies, autoimmune diseases, cancers and furthers. Immunomodulators are natural or synthetic materials that regulate the immune system and induce innate and adaptive defense mechanisms. These substances are classified into two types, immunostimulants and immunosuppressants. Immunostimulants can enhance body's resistance against various infections through increasing the basal levels of immune response. These agents could increase the oxidative activity of neutrophils, augment engulfment activity of phagocytic cells and stimulate cytotoxic cells as necessary defense mechanisms. The researchers classified the immunostimulants using their origin and mode of action such as bacterial products, complex carbohydrates, vaccines (antigens and adjuvants), cytokines, immunoenhancing drugs, nutritional factors, animal extracts, and plant extracts. The link between immune system with diet, exercise, sleep, stress, microbial exposure, alcohol, water, hygiene are found to influence the immune response to a greater extent. Immunostimulants and some immunity enhancing nutrients improve the functioning of the immune system. In addition, some preventive measures such as healthy diet or proper nutrition, moderate exercise, sound sleep, drinking adequate water, subclinical exposure to microbes and managing stress, good hygiene, are altogether capable of boosting the immune system. In this review, the concepts, types and functions of immunostimulants will be described as a therapeutic approach against different diseases.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Immunomodulators, Immunostimulants, Adjuvant, Mechanism, Immune system.</p> Prince Jain, Pratik Darji, Bhupendra Singh Thakur, Anushree Jain, Prateek Kumar Jain, Basant Khare Copyright (c) 2022 Prince Jain, Pratik Darji, Bhupendra Singh Thakur, Anushree Jain, Prateek Kumar Jain, Basant Khare https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ajdhs.com/index.php/journal/article/view/22 Thu, 15 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 An Overview on Formulation and Evaluation Aspects of Tablets http://ajdhs.com/index.php/journal/article/view/23 <p>Nothing in this world is stable and ever accepted. Change is the requirement of nature for the sake of adaptability. However, the pharmaceutical world is also not far off from this change. Technical advancement in pharma world also leads to the development of new dosages forms. This leads to the replacement of the older dosages forms with the newer once. But for the tablet dosages forms this replacement is substituted with modifications. On the top of it the availability of numerous evaluation parameters provides these new modifications in tablets a clear cut demonstration idea. Tablets are defined as solid unit dosage form of medicaments intended for oral use. They became most popular as they were easy in preparation compared to any other type of dosage forms. But the major drawback exists in its manufacturing. If any minor problem occurs during their manufacturing then the whole batch of the unit should be discarded. It is necessary to avoid any sort of errors during its manufacturing and as a result evaluation of tablets is very important before dispatching of a batch. In the present study, we discussed about the manufacturing techniques and evaluation tests for tablets.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Tablets, Solid unit dosage, Compression method, Indian pharmacopoeia, Manufacturing, Evaluations</p> Neeta Kushwaha, Anushree Jain, Prateek Kumar Jain, Basant Khare, Yashwant Singh Jat Copyright (c) 2022 Neeta Kushwaha, Anushree Jain, Prateek Kumar Jain, Basant Khare, Yashwant Singh Jat https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ajdhs.com/index.php/journal/article/view/23 Thu, 15 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 A Comprehensive Review: Transdermal Drug Delivery System: A Tool For Novel Drug Delivery System http://ajdhs.com/index.php/journal/article/view/24 <p>In the recent decade, skin delivery (topical and transdermal) has gained an unprecedented popularity, especially due to increased incidences of chronic skin diseases, demand for targeted and patient compliant delivery and interest in life cycle management strategies among pharmaceutical companies. Transdermal drug delivery system was presented to overcome the difficulties of drug delivery especially oral route. Transdermal drug delivery refers to a means of delivering drugs through the surface of the skin for local or systemic treatment. The drug functions after absorption through the skin into the systemic circulation <em>via </em>capillary action at a certain rate. Transdermal patches are now widely used as cosmetic, topical and transdermal delivery systems. These patches represent a key outcome from the growth in skin science, technology and expertise developed through trial and error, clinical observation and evidence-based studies that date back to the first existing human records. A transdermal patch is a medicated adhesive patch that is placed on the skin to deliver a specific dose of medication through skin and into the bloodstream. An advantage of a transdermal drug delivery route over other types of delivery system such as oral, topical, intravenous (i.v.), intramuscular (i.m.), etc. is that the patch provides a controlled release of the medication into the patient, usually through either a porous membrane covering a reservoir of medication or through body heat melting thin layers of medication embedded in the adhesive. The main disadvantage to transdermal delivery systems stems from the fact that the skin composition offers very effective barrier that allow only small molecule based drugs to penetrate the skin and pass through the barrier. Sildenafil citrate (SLD) is a selective cyclic guanosine monophosphate-specific phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor used for the oral treatment of erectile dysfunction and more recently, it has been used for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension and the enhancement of uteroplacental perfusion in case of fetal growth retardation. The challenges facing the oral administration of the drug include poor bioavailability and short duration of action that requires frequent administration. The main objective of transdermal drug delivery system is to deliver drugs into systemic circulation through skin at predetermined rate with minimal inter and intrapatient variations.</p> <p><strong>Keyword:</strong> Skin delivery, Transdermal drug delivery, Oral rout, Sildenafil citrate, Pulmonary arterial hypertension</p> Sadab Sadab, Sarad Sahu, Shubham Patel, Rubeena Khan, Basant Khare, Bhupendra Singh Thakur, Anushree Jain, Prateek Kumar Jain Copyright (c) 2022 Sadab Sadab, Sarad Sahu, Shubham Patel, Rubeena Khan, Basant Khare, Bhupendra Singh Thakur, Anushree Jain, Prateek Kumar Jain https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ajdhs.com/index.php/journal/article/view/24 Thu, 15 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Contemporary Trends in Dental Implants http://ajdhs.com/index.php/journal/article/view/25 <p>A high number of patients have one or more missing tooth and it is estimated that one in four world subjects over the age of 74 have lost all their natural teeth. Many options exist to replace missing teeth but dental implants have become one of the most used biomaterial to replace one (or more) missing tooth over the last decades. Therefore, the use of dental implants is also a common practice. Although research on dental implant de­signs, materials and techniques has increased in the past few years and is expected to expand in the future, there is still a lot of work involved in the use of better biomaterials, implant design, surface modification and functionalization of surfaces to improve the long-term outcomes of the treatment. This paper provides a brief history and evolution of dental implants. It also describes the types of implants that have been developed, and the parameters that are presently used in the design of dental implants. Finally, it describes the trends that are employed to improve dental implant surfaces, and current technologies used for the analysis and design of the implants.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Dental implants, History, Design, Surfaces, Osseointegration, Biopolymers. </p> Sanyam Jain, Sani Soni, Shivani Lodhi, Rubeena Khan, Anushree Jain, Basant Khare, Bhupendra Singh Thakur, Prateek Kumar Jain Copyright (c) 2022 Sanyam Jain, Sani Soni, Shivani Lodhi, Rubeena Khan, Anushree Jain, Basant Khare, Bhupendra Singh Thakur, Prateek Kumar Jain https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ajdhs.com/index.php/journal/article/view/25 Thu, 15 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Review on Molecular Modelling in Chemistry Education http://ajdhs.com/index.php/journal/article/view/26 <p>Molecular models derived from results of quantum-chemical calculations present an important category of didactic instruments in chemistry education. These models can be used especially as tools for supporting the students’ understanding by visual learning, which can adequately address complexity of many chemical topics, incorporate appropriate didactic principles, as well as utilize the benefits brought up by the actual information technology. The proposed molecular models are non-trivial examples of didactic application of computational chemistry techniques in illustration of electron interactions in amidic group, namely the interaction of the free electron pair on the nitrogen atom with the carbonyl group and also the interaction of atoms in the amide group with other surrounding atoms in the molecule. By these molecular models it is possible to explain acid-base properties of amides applying knowledge of electron density distribution in the molecules and the resulting electrostatic potential. Presentation of the structure and properties of the amides within education is important also for the reason that amidic functions are involved in many important natural substances (e.g. proteins, peptides, nucleic acids or alkaloids), synthetic macromolecular substances (e.g. Silon) or pharmaceutical preparations (e.g. paracetamol). This paper investigated the effect of using different types of models while teaching organic chemistry on student understanding of new concepts and the spatial structure of new molecules, as well as preference of a particular model type and illustrates the possibilities of computer-assisted molecular modelling in supporting chemistry teaching and learning.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Molecular models, Acidity, Amides, Basicity, Electrostatic potential</p> Itendra Singh Rajpoot, Hemant Patel, Rahul Singh Thakur, Basant Khare, Anushree Jain, Prateek Kumar Jain, Bhupendra Singh Thakur Copyright (c) 2022 Itendra Singh Rajpoot, Hemant Patel, Rahul Singh Thakur, Basant Khare, Anushree Jain, Prateek Kumar Jain, Bhupendra Singh Thakur https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ajdhs.com/index.php/journal/article/view/26 Thu, 15 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Review on QSAR using Anticancer Drug http://ajdhs.com/index.php/journal/article/view/27 <p>New drug discovery has been acknowledged as a complicated, expensive, time-consuming, and challenging project. It has been estimated that around 12 years and 2.7 billion USD, on average, are demanded for a new drug discovery via traditional drug development pipeline. How to reduce the research cost and speed up the development process of new drug discovery has become a challenging, urgent question for the pharmaceutical industry. Computer-aided drug discovery (CADD) has emerged as a powerful and promising technology for faster, cheaper and more effective drug design. Recently, the rapid growth of computational tools for drug discovery, including anticancer therapies, has exhibited a significant and outstanding impact on anticancer drug design, and has also provided fruitful insights into the area of cancer therapy. In this work, we discussed the Qualitative structure activity relationship, a computer-aided drug discovery process with a focus on anticancer drugs.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> New drug discovery, Computer-aided drug discovery, the Qualitative structure activity relationship, Anticancer</p> Hemant Ahirwar, Gabbar Kurmi, Rubeena Khan, Basant Khare, Anushree Jain, Prateek Kumar Jain, Bhupendra Singh Thakur Copyright (c) 2022 Hemant Ahirwar, Gabbar Kurmi, Rubeena Khan, Basant Khare, Anushree Jain, Prateek Kumar Jain, Bhupendra Singh Thakur https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ajdhs.com/index.php/journal/article/view/27 Thu, 15 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Review on Toxicity of Antihypertensive Drugs http://ajdhs.com/index.php/journal/article/view/28 <p>Adverse drug reactions are common and pose a serious health problem, limiting treatment options, causing compliance issues, and even leading to therapy discontinuation. Hypertension is a chronic disease that is regarded as a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. To achieve a target blood pressure in an individual patient, a wide range of anti-hypertensive agents are available as single or combination therapy, whereas combination therapy increases the risk of developing Adverse Drug Reaction. Hypertensive patients frequently have coexisting disease conditions such as hyperlipidemia, impaired glucose metabolism, and renal impairment, which increase the risk of Cardio Vascular morbidity and mortality. When treating hypertensive patients, comprehensive management of both hypertension and concomitant Cardio Vascular Disease risk factors is essential. Some of the rare and serious Adverse Drug Reactions that occurred in patients treated with these drugs included beta-blockers causing psoriasis, calcium channel blockers causing gingival hyperplasia, peripheral oedema, Angiotensin Converting Enzyme inhibitors causing ankle oedema, and thiazide diuretics causing hyponatremia and hyperglycemia. Asymptomatic hypertension is more common and necessitates lifelong treatment with antihypertensive agents, predisposing to Adverse Drug Events.In order to improve treatment outcomes and reduce morbidity and mortality associated with adverse drug reactions, healthcare professionals must monitor adverse drug reactions in patients taking antihypertensive drugs.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Adverse drug reactions, Hypertension, hyperlipidemia, glucose metabolism</p> Devraj Rajak, Deepali Sahu, Anushree Jain, Rubeena Khan, Basant Khare, Prateek Kumar Jain, Bhupendra Singh Thakur Copyright (c) 2022 Devraj Rajak, Deepali Sahu, Anushree Jain, Rubeena Khan, Basant Khare, Prateek Kumar Jain, Bhupendra Singh Thakur https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ajdhs.com/index.php/journal/article/view/28 Thu, 15 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000